Wood stored outside under cover will eventually equilibrium, which happens to be 14.7% MC in October in Asheville, NC. So, 16% is possible... if the wood has been stored under cover a few years.
But the reason people keep going back to wood is history, we have dozens of similar threads per year (not with regard to smell, but with regard to some of the other things I quoted below), which after some initial push-back, very frequently end in a wet wood analysis. So, there's no saying that you have wet wood, but it is always worth digging deep, on this subject.
You said a few things that would appear to be signs of struggling with wet wood, here:
I have never run either of my BK 30's with the door cracked for more than 3 minutes on a cold start, and more often it's less than that. At 10 minutes, I'd think they'd be approaching permanent damage, but I'm not going to try it to prove a point. I have one of my BK30's on a chimney that's less than recommended height, and it still takes off like a banshee with the door cracked, because my wood is dry.
But I do remember having to play these games in my first year of stoving on an old Jotul, with wet wood. I'd get the thing going nicely, and then it would snuff out when I close the doors. I'd have to get it literally raging to keep it from dying when closing the door... on the same chimney that now works fine with dry wood. Is that what you're seeing from your setup?
No smoke comes out of my stoves when I open the door on a warmed chimney, that is NOT a feature of cat stoves. In fact, with the bypass open, they should breathe up the pipe easier than even any non-cat. But many chimneys stall when not warm (my short one does), and it is mighty tough to achieve a warmed chimney when you're sending water vapor up the pipe, which again gets us back to wet wood as real possibility.
Again, I'm not arguing that you do have wet wood, I really don't know. Just trying to help piece together this puzzle, and latching onto what seems like a line we should chase. I'd get some framing lumber, which is usually KD'd to around 8 - 12%, and burn a mixed load of 50% framing lumber with 50% your cord wood, interspersed. Let's see how it behaves, both with regard to how soon you can close the door without killing the fire, how it burns, and if it smells.